The Pacific electric ray (Torpedo californica) is a species of electric ray in the familyTorpedinidae, endemic to the coastal waters of the northeastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to British Columbia. It generally inhabits sandy flats, rocky reefs, and kelp forests from the surface to a depth of 200 m (660 ft), but has also been known to make forays into the open ocean. Measuring up to 1.4 m (4.6 ft) long, this species has smooth-rimmed spiracles (paired respiratory openings behind the eyes) and a dark gray, slate, or brown dorsal coloration, sometimes with dark spots. Its body form is typical of the genus, with a rounded pectoral fin disc wider than long and a thick tail bearing two dorsal fins of unequal size and a well-developed caudal fin.The only electric ray found off western North America, the Pacific electric ray occurs as far south as Sebastian Vizcaino Bay in Baja California, and as far north as the Dixon Entrance in northern British Columbia. It is most common south of Point Conception, California, with the rays north of the Point perhaps representing one or more separate populations.The Pacific electric ray has a soft, flabby body devoid of dermal denticles. It has an oval pectoral fin disc about 1.2 times as wide as long, with a nearly straight front margin and a pair of kidney-shaped electric organs visible beneath the skin. The eyes are small and followed by smooth-rimmed spiracles; the space from the spiracles to the snout tip is about 1.8 times the distance between the spiracles. There is a curtain of skin between the nostrils that almost reaches the mouth, which is arched with deep furrows at the corners. The distance between the mouth and the snout tip is about equal to the mouth width, and three times that of the distance between the nostrils. There are 25–28 upper tooth rows and 19–26 lower tooth rows; each tooth is tiny and smooth, with a single sharp cusp.